Karen Horney (1885-1952)


自我憎惡......聽起來好像是一個非常負面、非常病態的詞兒,不是嗎?在閱讀這篇網路文章之前,我一直以為自己頂多就是個龜毛人而已,遠遠不到自我憎惡的程度;不過,當我讀完這篇文章,我卻發現自己符合了文中自我憎惡者的好些特質......哇啊啊啊啊!好可怕啊!原來我一直有自我憎惡的傾向啊啊啊啊啊!(這會不會變成自驗預言或是畢馬龍效應啊@@?)

還好現在知道自己可能在不自覺間感到自我憎惡了,未來一定要多疼自己一點、多愛自己一點啊!

卡倫荷妮是新佛洛伊德主義的代表人物之一,也是上個世紀著名的精神分析學者,其學說論述或許已經不是最新最正確的了,但是仍然有參考的價值。故,我野人獻曝地這篇網路上找來的文章翻成中文給大家看看。各位龜毛人和完美主義者們,來看看你是否也在不自覺中陷入了自我憎惡的危機吧!

In Neurosis and Human Growth, Karen Horney explains how the pride system generates self-hate.
在《自我的掙扎》中,凱倫荷妮解釋了自尊系統如何產生自我憎惡。 

"Briefly, when an individual shifts his center of gravity to his idealized self, he not only exalts himself but also is bound to look at his actual self -- all that he is at a given time, body, mind, healthy and neurotic -- from a wrong perspective. The glorified self becomes not only a phantom to be pursued; it also becomes a measuring rod with which to measure his actual being. And this actual being is such an embarrassing sight when viewed from the perspective of a godlike perfection that he cannot but despise it. Moreover, what is dynamically more important, the human being which he actually is keeps interfering -- significantly -- with his flight to glory, and therefore he is bound to hate it, to hate himself. And since pride and self-hate are actually one entity, I suggest calling the sum total of the factors involved by a common name: the pride system" (Horney, 1950, pp. 110-11).
「簡言之,當個體將其重心轉向理想化的自我時,他不僅會提升自我,也一定會以一種錯誤的觀點看待他的真實自我──在當下的特定時間、肉體、心靈、健康與精神狀態所表現出的自己。經過崇高化的自我不但會成為個體不斷追求的魅影,也會成為衡量他真實自我的測量竿。若以神樣完美的理想化自我的角度去審視此一令人羞恥的真實自我,則個體勢必會感到無以附加的憎惡。更有甚者,就動態過程而言更重要的是,真實自我會不斷──嚴重地──干擾個體飛往榮耀的過程,故,個體勢必會痛恨真實自我,也就是痛恨自己本身。既然自尊與自我憎惡事實上屬於同一個本質,我建議將所有相關要素的總和統稱為『自尊系統』。」 

"Horney (1950) recognized six major ways in which people express self-hatred. First, self-hatred may result in relentless demands on the self, which are exemplified by the tyranny of the should" (Feist, pg. 256). 
荷妮指出了六種人類表達自我憎惡的主要方式。首先,自我憎惡可能會導致嚴厲的自我要求,其中一例便為應然的專橫。
(譯按:就在下個人經驗而言,所謂應然的專橫指的就是用最理想化的「應該怎麼樣」來評斷自己,於是想當然爾的總覺得自己無論怎麼努力,結果都令人頹喪,只陷在懊悔裡覆頌:「我應該要更瘦的、我應該要更會讀書的、我應該要賺更多錢的、我應該要更有出息的、我應該要做得更好的、我應該要......)。 

"The second mode of expressing self-hatred is merciless self-accusation" (pg. 256). 
第二種自我憎惡的表達是殘酷的自我指控。
(譯按:這很明顯了吧。閣下是否常常在暗地裡自己罵自己笨、沒用、什麼都做不好blah blah blah...呢?)

"Third, self-hatred may take the form of self-contempt, which might be expressed as belittling, disparaging, doubting, discrediting, and ridiculing oneself" (pg. 256). 
第三,自我憎惡可能以自我蔑視的方式出現,表現出對自我的輕視、誹謗、質疑、不信任,以及嘲諷。 
(譯按:例如常常想著反正我本來就是爛,作什麼一定都不行啦、像我這種宅宅一定沒有人會喜歡啦、我這種沒用的東西就算消失在世界上也不會有人替我掉淚啦等等......)

"A fourth expression of self-hatred is self-frustration" (pg. 256). 
自我憎惡的第四種表現型則為自我挫敗。 

"Fifth, self-hatred may be manifested as self-torment or self-torture. Although self-torment can exist in each of the other forms of self-hatred, it becomes a separate category when people's main intention is to inflict harm or suffering on themselves. Some people attain masochistic satisfaction by anguishing over a decision, exaggerating the pain of a headache, cutting themselves with a knife, starting a fight that they are sure to lose, or inviting physical abuse" (pg. 257). 
第五,自我憎惡可能會以自我折磨或自我拷問的方式呈現。雖然自我折磨可能出現在任一型態的自我憎惡中,但若當事人主要目的便是強加傷害或苦難在自己身上,自我折磨便自成一別類。某些人會藉由為抉擇而苦惱、將頭痛程度誇張化、以刀子自殘、故意挑發注定會輸的紛爭,或是邀請肉體上的虐待等等方式來達到被虐的滿足。 

"The sixth and final form of self-hatred is self-destructive actions and impulses, which may be either physical or psychological, conscious or unconscious, acute or chronic, carried out in action or enacted only in the imagination. Overeating, abusing alcohol and other drugs, working too hard, driving recklessly, and suicide are common expressions of physical self-destruction. Neurotics may also attack themselves psychologically, for example, quitting a job just when it begins to be fulfilling,m breaking off a healthy relationship in favor of a neurotic one, or engaging in promiscuous activities" (pg. 257). 
自我憎惡的第六,也是最終極的型態便是自毀性的行為和衝動,這種行為與衝動可能是實體或精神的、有意識或無意識的、急性或慢性的、副諸實行或是僅只想像的。過度反應、濫用酒精與藥物、工作過度、危險駕駛、自殺行為等等皆是實體自毀的常見表現。神經症患者也可能在精神上自我攻擊,例如在剛找到工作的當下馬上辭職來感到滿足、為了某種病態神經質的交往關係而斷絕正常健康的交往關係,或者涉及淫亂複雜的男女關係。 

"Horney believes we can witness four consequences of self-hatred. One is a compulsive need to compare self with others. Typically, the result is a 'comparative inferiority'" (Cooper, pg. 136). 
荷妮相信我們可以見識自我憎惡的四種後果。第一是把自身與他人相比較的強迫性需要。最典型的結果則是「比較性的劣等感」。 

"Another consequence of self-hate is a hypersensitivity to criticism, and hence, an excessive vulnerability in our relationships" (pg. 137). 
自我憎惡的另一種後果是對於批評的過度敏感,也因此在人際關係中變得過度脆弱。 

"Still another consequence of self-hate is allowing too much abuse from others" (pg. 137). 
自我憎惡還有一種後果,即為容許太多來自他人的虐待。 

"The last consequence of self-hate is the compulsive need to alleviate self-contempt with attention, regard, appreciation or admiration from others" (pg. 139). 
自我憎惡的最後一種後果是強迫性地需要藉由他人的注目、關心、讚賞或仰慕來減輕對自我的蔑視。 

引用書目:
Cooper, Terry D. (2003). Sin, Pride & Self-Acceptance: The Problem of Identity in Theology & Psychology. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. 
Jess Feist (1994, c.1985). Theories of Personality. 3rd. ed. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace. 
Karen Horney (1950). Neurosis and Human Growth. New York: Norton. 








This article is licensed under the
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. It uses material from the PTypes article "Self-Hate". 





















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